In this article, let’s understand important concepts in human physiology – the study of how the human body functions. Again, this topic is a key component of the NEET syllabus, and is essential for success in medical college and beyond.
We’ll provide a comprehensive overview of human physiology, covering the various systems of the body and their functions. We’ll also discuss homeostasis, the process by which the body maintains a stable internal environment, and the role of hormones in maintaining homeostasis.
The Human Body: An Overview
The human body is an incredibly complex and interconnected system, made up of various organ systems that work together to keep us alive and healthy. These organ systems include:
- The respiratory system: The respiratory system is responsible for bringing oxygen into the body and removing carbon dioxide. It consists of the nasal passages, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
- The cardiovascular system: The cardiovascular system is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. It consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.
- The digestive system: The digestive system is responsible for breaking down food and absorbing nutrients. It consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.
- The urinary system: The urinary system is responsible for removing waste products from the body. It consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
- The skeletal system: The skeletal system is responsible for providing support and protection for the body. It consists of bones and joints.
- The muscular system: The muscular system is responsible for movement and support. It consists of muscles and tendons.
- The nervous system: The nervous system is responsible for controlling and coordinating the body’s functions. It consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
- The endocrine system: The endocrine system is responsible for producing and secreting hormones. It consists of glands such as the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, and adrenal glands.
One of the key concepts in human physiology is homeostasis, the process by which the body maintains a stable internal environment. This is essential for the proper functioning of the body’s systems and organs.
To maintain homeostasis, the body uses feedback loops. These loops consist of a sensor, a control center, and an effector. The sensor detects a change in the body’s internal environment, the control center processes this information and sends a response, and the effector carries out the response.
For example, if the body becomes too hot, the sensor (such as the hypothalamus in the brain) will detect the change and send a signal to the control center (also in the brain). The control center will then send a signal to the effector (such as sweat glands) to cool the body down.
Another important aspect of human physiology is the role of hormones in maintaining homeostasis. Hormones are chemical messengers produced by glands in the endocrine system. They are secreted into the bloodstream and travel to target cells, where they bind to receptors and trigger a response.
Hormones play a crucial role in regulating various processes in the body, including growth and development, metabolism, and reproductive function. Some examples of hormones include insulin (which regulates blood sugar levels), thyroid hormones (which regulate metabolism), and testosterone (which plays a role in reproductive function).
NEET Syllabus: How to practice questions
As you continue to study for the NEET exam, be sure to pay special attention to the topics covered under NEET Syllabus category as they have higher weightage in the exam. To practice questions in Human Physiology for free, log into NEETshala app or website and go to question bank from main menu. Select Human Physiology from the NEET syllabus. You can practice MCQs or go through Flashcards. Click here to go to MCQs directly.