As part of NEET syllabus simplified, we came up with another important topic today. Inheritance is the passing on of traits or characteristics from parents to their offspring. The molecular basis of inheritance is the study of how genes, which are the units of inheritance, are passed on from one generation to the next at the molecular level. This is a fundamental concept in genetics and is essential for understanding how traits are inherited and how genetic disorders are passed on.
Structure of DNA
The molecular basis of inheritance is rooted in the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA is the genetic material that contains the instructions for the development and function of all living organisms. DNA is a long, double-stranded molecule that is composed of four types of nucleotides: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). These nucleotides are arranged in a specific sequence that forms the genetic code.
Analogy: Imagine DNA as a ladder, with the nucleotides serving as the rungs. The ladder has two sides, the left side and the right side. These sides are connected by the rungs (nucleotides). This ladder is twisted to form a double helix. This double helix is the structure of DNA.
Chromosomes and Genes
The genetic information in an organism is stored in chromosomes, which are large structures that contain hundreds or thousands of genes. Each gene is a specific segment of DNA that codes for a specific protein. Proteins are responsible for the majority of the functions in the body, including metabolism, growth, and development. Therefore, the sequence of nucleotides in a gene determines the sequence of amino acids in a protein, and ultimately the protein’s function.
The process by which genetic information passes on from one generation to the next is through cell division. Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. The two main types of cell division are mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is the type of cell division that leads to the formation of identical daughter cells. These cells are exact copies of the parent cell and contain the same genetic information. Meiosis is the type of cell division that leads to the formation of gametes or sex cells, such as sperm and egg. The process of meiosis creates genetic variation by shuffling and recombining the genetic information of the parent cells.
Conclusion and how to practice questions from NEET syllabus
The molecular basis of inheritance is the study of how genetic information passes from one generation to the next at the molecular level. The genetic information is stored in the sequence of nucleotides in DNA, and it is passed on through cell division. Understanding the molecular basis of inheritance is essential for understanding how traits are inherited and how genetic disorders are passed on.
As you continue to study for the NEET exam, be sure to pay special attention to the topics covered under NEET Syllabus category as they have higher weightage in the exam. To practice MCQs, log into NEETshala app or website and go to question bank from main menu. You can practice MCQs or go through Flashcards. Click here to go to MCQs directly.